Neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health. There are several gaps in understanding the many issues related to neurological disorders. Public health challenges describe and discuss the increasing global public health importance of common neurological disorders such as dementia, epilepsy, headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, and neuro infections, neurological disorders associated with malnutrition, pain associated with neurological disorders, Parkinson ’s disease, stroke and traumatic brain injuries. Health systems need to be strengthened to deliver better care for people with neurological disorders. Public health professionals approach neurology more broadly than neurologists by monitoring neurological disorders and related health concerns of entire communities and promoting healthy practices and behaviors among them to ensure that populations stay healthy. Public health specialists focus on health and disease of entire populations rather than on individual patients, whereas neurologists usually treat one patient at a time for a specific neurological condition. Public health programmes in reducing disease and disability, public health generally receives much less government funding compared with other areas of medicine.